Citizen Science in Italy

Development of Citizen Science Approaches in Italy

Italy stands at the forefront of the global citizen science movement with a rich and multifaceted tradition of public engagement in scientific research and data collection. This proactive approach to citizen science extends across a diverse range of disciplines and has a profound impact on environmental monitoring, conservation, and sustainability within the nation.

Italy is one of the most represented countries in terms of the number of members within the European Citizen Science Association (ECSA), demonstrating a significant interest and future growth potential in the field of citizen science. Since 2005, citizen science projects have increased, with a primary focus on the topic of biodiversity. In February 2023, the Italian Association of Citizen Science was established, marking an important milestone for the development of citizen science in Italy.

The landscape of citizen science in Italy is marked by its vibrancy, with countless initiatives and projects that involve communities, experts, and enthusiasts. This engagement is deeply woven into the fabric of Italy’s cultural heritage, which places great value on the pursuit of knowledge and scientific discovery. Italy’s commitment to citizen science is not merely a superficial dedication; it is deeply rooted in the fabric of the nation’s identity and its aspirations for the future.

One of the defining features of citizen science in Italy is its holistic approach. It doesn’t exist in isolation but is intricately interwoven with various domains of scientific study, policy development, and environmental management. Italy’s involvement with ECSA and the establishment of the Italian Association of Citizen Science in 2023 demonstrate the nation’s dedication to advancing citizen science initiatives. This commitment extends beyond data collection and scientific research to become a cornerstone of Italy’s environmental strategies and policies, embodying Italy’s dedication to empowering citizens to actively participate in shaping a sustainable future.

The impact of this concerted effort extends beyond the realm of data and scientific discoveries. It has translated into more effective and sustainable approaches to address pressing environmental challenges within the country, involving public participation to shape a sustainable future. The focus of citizen science initiatives has not only been on generating valuable scientific data, but also in transforming the relationship between citizens and their environment, fostering their sense of responsibility towards the community. This is not a passive engagement but an active partnership between citizens, the scientific community, and environmental stewardship.

Through citizen science, Italy intends to ensure that its rich natural heritage is not just preserved but thrives for future generations. This collaborative approach reflects not only Italy’s commitment to addressing environmental issues but also its firm belief in the importance of public participation in shaping a sustainable future.


Major Environmental Challenges in Italy

Air Quality and Pollution

Italy grapples with formidable air quality challenges closely linked to its industrial activities, burgeoning transportation networks, and urbanization trends. The emission of pollutants from factories, a surging volume of vehicular traffic, and heating systems, particularly during the colder seasons, have cumulatively resulted in elevated levels of air pollution in urban regions. This is a matter of paramount concern, impacting not only environmental quality but also the health and well-being of the population. The Italian government has adopted a proactive stance, leveraging citizen science to address and manage air quality concerns effectively. Through citizen science projects, residents are actively engaged in the monitoring and evaluation of air quality. Armed with scientific knowledge and real-time data, they play an integral role in the battle against air pollution, actively contributing to the quest for cleaner, healthier urban environments.


Biodiversity Conservation

Italy, celebrated for its astounding array of ecosystems, finds itself contending with multifaceted challenges emanating from habitat degradation and the specter of climate change. These threats cast a looming shadow over the nation’s extraordinary biodiversity, which is characterized by a rich tapestry of unique flora and fauna. The loss of habitats and the shifts in climatic conditions present a sobering challenge to the conservation of Italy’s precious natural heritage. In response to these challenges, citizen science initiatives have risen to the occasion, passionately committed to the cataloging and preservation of Italy’s unique ecosystems. These citizen science projects play a pivotal role in enhancing scientific understanding, creating a deeper appreciation of Italy’s biodiversity, and providing critical support for the nation’s conservation endeavors. The individuals who actively participate in these initiatives have become stewards of Italy’s ecological wealth, forging a strong connection between communities and their natural surroundings.


Climate Change Impacts

The reverberations of climate change are acutely felt in Italy, manifesting in the form of increased temperatures, mercurial shifts in weather patterns, and the emergence of extreme weather events. These effects pose significant challenges to the nation’s environmental stability and resilience. In the battle against these mounting threats, citizen scientists stand on the front lines. They shoulder the responsibility of monitoring and researching these climatic shifts, acting as the custodians of valuable data. This data is not merely an abstract set of figures; it is a linchpin for the formulation of climate adaptation strategies that aim to fortify Italy’s defenses against the perils of a changing climate. Italy’s commitment to sustainability and resilience in the face of climate change is vividly exemplified by the dedication of its citizen scientists.


Water Quality and Management

Italy, characterized by its profusion of lakes, rivers, and extensive coastline, places a premium on the quality and sustainability of its water resources. These aquatic ecosystems are integral to the nation’s environmental well-being and are instrumental in shaping Italy’s identity. However, these vital aquatic environments face a spectrum of challenges, ranging from pollution to eutrophication. The safeguarding of Italy’s aquatic resources is a mission that resonates deeply with the Italian populace, as citizen science projects assume the mantle of monitoring and maintaining the health of these ecosystems. This data plays an indispensable role in the protection and effective management of Italy’s aquatic environments, facilitating sound decision-making and sustainable practices to ensure the perpetuation of these vital resources.


Urbanization and Land Use

Italy’s rapid urbanization is characterized by the development of land that presents multifaceted challenges. The burgeoning construction and land-use trends have significant repercussions for local environments and green spaces, influencing the fabric of urban ecosystems. While recycling initiatives are widespread across the nation, there persist regions where adherence to proper waste disposal practices remains inadequate, resulting in the improper disposal of substantial quantities of waste material. Frequently, an abundance of unsorted waste litters public areas, including pristine beaches. The balance between urban development and environmental sustainability is a complex equation, and citizen science initiatives play an instrumental role in unraveling it. These projects are dedicated to comprehending the impact of construction on urban ecosystems, specifically focusing on green spaces within urban areas. The data generated by these initiatives isn’t confined to scientific archives; rather, it shapes informed decisions concerning sustainable urban development in Italy. The legacy of Italy’s urbanization isn’t just a landscape of concrete and steel; it is a testament to the synergy between progress and environmental preservation, brought to life by the active engagement of citizen scientists.


Citizen Science Projects iN Italy

National Biodiversity Future Center (NBFC)

The National Biodiversity Future Center is an extensive initiative that actively engages citizens in monitoring and preserving Italy’s rich biodiversity. This project encourages participants to contribute to the knowledge and conservation of the nation’s diverse ecosystems. To learn more, visit National Biodiversity Future Center (NBFC).



The LIFE ESC 360 project focuses on environmental and social monitoring, actively involving citizens in data collection. Participants in this initiative play a crucial role in environmental conservation and sustainability, promoting a sense of responsibility toward the environment. For more information, visit LIFE ESC 360.


MUV – Mobility Urban Values

MUV – Mobility Urban Values is an ambitious project that encourages citizen involvement in sustainable urban mobility solutions. Participants actively contribute to eco-friendly transportation methods, furthering the cause of environmental protection and fostering a deeper sense of environmental responsibility. To learn more, visit MUV – Mobility Urban Values.


Walk up Aniene

The Walk up Aniene project engages citizens in exploring and monitoring the Aniene River, enhancing environmental awareness and understanding of urban water bodies. Participants play a pivotal role in urban ecological studies, promoting sustainability and responsible land use. For more information, visit Walk up Aniene.



The NO2 NO GRAZIE project is dedicated to air quality monitoring, encouraging citizens to participate in air data collection. This initiative is instrumental in empowering citizens with knowledge to tackle air pollution effectively, promoting a healthier living environment. To learn more, visit NO2 NO GRAZIE.


These citizen science projects epitomize Italy’s innovative and forward-thinking approach to public engagement in scientific research. By actively involving citizens in various aspects of environmental monitoring and sustainability, Italy harnesses the collective power of its people to foster greater environmental awareness and propel the nation toward a more sustainable and ecologically conscious future.


Field Research Findings

The GEA partner consortium embarked on a journey of discovery in Italy, seeking to understand the landscape of citizen science. The Italian field research was carried out to assess the level of recognition, participation, and the potential of citizen science as a catalyst for environmental change among Italian adults.

The GEA partner consortium engaged with a diverse group of participants, including adults, disadvantaged adults, adult educators, as well as experts in the fields of citizen science and environmental actions. Through a combination of surveys, workshops, and interviews, the consortium aimed to paint a comprehensive picture of how citizen science is perceived and whether it holds the potential to increase environmental awareness among Italian adults.


Low Awareness of Citizen Science in Italy

The term “citizen science” remains largely unfamiliar to ordinary Italian citizens. For many, this concept remains undiscovered in their daily lives. More than 80% of participants indicated no prior awareness. Approximately 50% of respondents expressed an inclination toward environmental education.


Connection Between Environmental Challenges and Social Dimensions

Participants in the focus groups emphasized the strong connection between environmental challenges and social dimensions. They highlighted that it is difficult to discuss local environmental challenges in isolation, as local and global events are intertwined. Environmental and social issues overlap, making it crucial to address both aspects. This intersection is essential in understanding and tackling environmental challenges effectively. 

Main Environmental Concerns

The field research identified various environmental concerns in Italy. The respondents and participants mentioned a wide range of challenges, such as a significant increase in wildlife populations (64%), which have led to issues including damage to crops, destruction of drainage channels, and pollution of groundwater. Additionally, participants recognized problems related to wildfires (58%), climate change (73%), and agricultural practices (51%). The diversity of environmental concerns suggests a multifaceted approach is needed.

Local Environmental Initiatives

Both surveys and focus group discussions revealed the existence of local environmental initiatives in Italy. In urban areas like Palermo, various neighborhood communities have actively engaged in these initiatives. Examples of local environmental actions include educational farms, urban gardens, tree planting, and beach clean-up efforts. However, many participants noted a general disinterest among adults in environmental issues, considering them primarily as “new generation” concerns. This disinterest is a challenge for local environmental initiatives.


Adult Environmental Education

The field research highlighted the importance of adult environmental education in Italy. Participants in the focus groups shared recommendations for making educational programs more effective. They suggested that educational programs should be face-to-face, flexible in terms of timing, and should actively engage participants in data collection and practical activities. Moreover, they emphasized the need to provide practical examples of sustainable actions in daily life to raise awareness and encourage action.


Participation in Citizen Science Projects

Citizen science projects were relatively unknown among the survey respondents. While some educators and participants in the focus groups had experience with citizen science initiatives, the majority of the population was unfamiliar with the term. The impact of citizen science projects was found to be positive, leading to increased engagement among participants. However, the absence of awareness and long-term continuity of these projects posed challenges.



The Italian field research provides an in-depth exploration of the awareness and engagement of ordinary citizens in the realm of citizen science. The findings reveal a stark divide, with many Italians unfamiliar with the term “citizen science.” The findings underscore the close connection between environmental challenges and social dimensions, emphasizing the importance of a holistic approach to address these issues.




The field research conducted in Italy as part of the GEA project revealed several key findings that shed light on the awareness and participation of citizens in citizen science activities. These findings align with and expand upon the insights obtained from the desk research in Italy.

The unfamiliarity with the term “citizen science” emerged as a common theme throughout both the desk and field research, particularly among regular adults. The broader issue of limited environmental awareness was also evident. These findings underline the need for enhanced education and outreach efforts.

The importance of addressing local environmental challenges and integrating social aspects into the context of citizen science was emphasized. Local communities play a vital role in perceiving and addressing environmental problems, making it essential to foster a sense of shared responsibility and collective action. The specific environmental challenges reported by participants varied between urban and rural areas, underlining the importance of tailoring citizen science initiatives to local contexts.

Several valuable insights emerged regarding adult environmental education. It is clear that flexibility in the delivery of educational programs is essential, as many adults face time constraints due to their professional and personal commitments. Effective programs should incorporate face-to-face elements, practical activities, and engagement with role models who demonstrate sustainable actions. Furthermore, micro-actions, or small steps individuals can take in their everyday lives, were identified as a powerful means to engage a broader audience in environmental sustainability.

The field research illuminated the existence of various local environmental initiatives in Italy, including urban gardens, educational farms, and community cleanup efforts. However, the disinterest of many adults in environmental issues, often considered “new generation” concerns, poses a significant challenge. Bridging the intergenerational gap and making environmental activities more accessible to adults will be critical to drive greater participation. Effective communication, self-sufficient communities, and long-term sustainability were identified as key factors for the success of such initiatives.